Democratization, Vol. 15, page(s): 909-929
The purpose of this article is to contribute to a better understanding of the contemporary
importance for democracy of the relationship between elected leaders and the security
forces. It attempts to present a conceptualization and framework to help comprehend what
security forces actually do and how they interface with democratic governments. The article
aims to extend the conceptual breadth of the literature on civil–military relations beyond
control to include two further dimensions – effectiveness and efficiency. The research is
based on the authors’ experience in conducting programmes for officers and civilians throughout the world in line with at least six different roles and missions of security forces. The conceptualization draws on literature in comparative politics, organization theory, and defence economics, as well as civil–military relations, and security sector reform.