MMP: Liwa al-Haqq

Homs Syria

Liwa al-Haqq

Liwa al-Haqq is a militant organization operating in Syria as a faction of Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham umbrella group.

Key Statistics

2012 First Recorded Activity
2013 First Attack
2020 Profile Last Updated

Profile Contents

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Overview

Narrative of the Organization's History

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Organization

Leadership, Name Changes, Size Estimates, Resources, Geographic Locations

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Strategy

Ideology, Aims, Political Activities, Targets, and Tactics

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Major Attacks

First Attacks, Largest Attacks, Notable Attacks

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Interactions

Foreign Designations and Listings, Community Relations, Relations with Other Groups, State Sponsors and External Influences

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Maps

Mapping relationships with other militant groups over time

Contact MMP

Send a message to the Mapping Militants team.

Download Full Profile as PDF

Last updated February 2020

How to Cite

Mapping Militant Organizations. "Liwa al-Haqq." Stanford University. Last modified February 2020. https://cisac.fsi.stanford.edu/mappingmilitants/profiles/liwa-al-haqq
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Organizational Overview

 

Formed: August 11, 2012

Disbanded: Group is active as a faction of Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham umbrella group

First Attack: May 8-22,  2013 : Liwa al-Haqq cooperated with several other Syrian opposition groups to overtake a government military encampment in the countryside of Idlib. These groups included Jabhat al-Nusra, Ahrar al-Sham, Liwa al-Tawhid, Suqur al-Sham, Liwa al-Hurriya, Deraa al-Thawra, Deraa al-Jabal, and Ahrar al-Shimal (unknown casualties).[1]

Last Attack: June 14, 2013: Liwa al-Haqq worked with Jabhat al-Nusra, Ahrar al-Sham, Liwa al-Tawhid, and Ahrar al-Shimal to take over a military housing complex in Idlib (unknown casualties).[2]

Executive Summary

Liwa al-Haqq (the Truth Brigade, Haq Brigade of Homs) was a Syrian militant organization formed in May 2012 to oppose the Assad regime.  It operated in the provinces of Homs, Idlib, and Raqqa. While Liwa al-Haqq only engaged in one documented attack, it was an active member of the Syrian Islamic Front (SIF) umbrella organization, which was founded in 2012. The group was also affiliated with the Free Syrian Army (FSA). However, Liwa al-Haqq left both the SIF and the FSA after joining the Islamic Front umbrella organization in November 2013.  Liwa al-Haqq commander Sheikh Abu Rateb served as the Islamic Front’s general secretary until it dissolved in mid-2014 due to disagreements between two of its largest founding members, Ahrar al-Sham and Jaysh al-Islam. Although Liwa al-Haqq allegedly merged with Ahrar al-Sham in December 2014, the degree of Liwa al-Haqq’s autonomy is disputed. In January 2017, Liwa al-Haqq merged with four other groups to form the umbrella organization Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS), where it remains active as a minor faction as of February 2020.

Group Narrative

Liwa al-Haqq (the Truth Brigade, Haqq Brigade of Homs) was a Syrian militant organization formed in May 2012 to oppose the Assad regime. The group included ten brigades at its height: Katibat al-Siddiq, Katibat al-Furati, Katibat al-Huda, Katibat al-Naser li-Din Allah, Katibat Sebaa al-Birr, Katibat Shuhada Baba Amr, Kataeb Atbaa al-Rasoul, Katibat al-Ansar, Kata’ib al-Bara, Katibat al-Bara bin Malek, and Katibat Seif Allah.[3] Liwa al-Haqq largely operated independently in the province of Homs and was active in Idlib and Raqqa provinces as well.

While Liwa al-Haqq engaged in few documented attacks, it was an active member of several prominent Syrian opposition coalitions. From December 2012 until November 2013, Liwa al-Haqq operated as a founding member of the Syrian Islamic Front (SIF) umbrella group.[4] The SIF’s goals were to topple the Assad regime and establish Shariah law in Syria. But, it also advocated for avoiding ethnic and sectarian conflict by using political avenues to garner public support.[5] Until 2013, Liwa al-Haqq was also loosely affiliated with the Free Syrian Army (FSA), a Western-backed loose network of rebel groups formed in 2011.[6] Liwa al-Haqq broke away from the FSA on September 23, 2013 along with thirteen other opposition groups to form the Islamic Coalition.[7] Like the SIF, the Islamic Coalition called for implementation of Shariah law in Syria and for overthrowing the Assad regime. But, a different key tenet of the Islamic Coalition was its insistence that opposition to the Assad regime be Syrian led—a stance directed against the FSA.[8] But, by November 2013, the Islamic Coalition dissolved due to infighting, and Liwa al-Haqq merged with seven other opposition groups to create the Islamic Front.[9] This coincided with the dissolution of the SIF, which disbanded to merge with the Syrian Islamic Liberation Front coalition under the umbrella of the Islamic Front.[10]

After joining the Islamic Front, Liwa al-Haqq commander Sheikh Abu Rateb served as the organization’s general secretary until the Islamic Front disbanded in mid-2014 due to disagreements between two of its largest founding subgroups, Ahrar al-Sham and Jaysh al-Islam.[11] Soon after the Islamic Front dissolved, reports suggested that Ahrar al-Sham absorbed Liwa al-Haqq. The Syrian government seized  Liwa al-Haqq’s home province of Homs in spring 2014, and the group allegedly “lost all independent relevance.”[12] During this period, however, Liwa al-Haqq was listed as an independent member of the Jaysh al-Fatah umbrella organization, which rose to prominence after successfully pushing the Syrian army out of Idlib Province in March 2015.[13] Reports from 2016 also listed Liwa al-Haqq separately from Ahrar al-Sham, which may suggest that the group retained autonomy during these years. However, the percise nature and degree of Liwa al-Haqq’s independence, if independent at all, is unknown.[14]

The status of Liwa al-Haqq’s autonomy did not become clearer until January 2017 when Liwa al-Haqq merged with four other groups to form the umbrella organization Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS). The other groups included Jabhet Fateh al-Sham (formerly Al-Qaeda’s al-Nusra Front), Harakat Nour al-Din al-Zinki, Jaysh al-Sunna, and Jabhat Ansar al-Din. Their purpose in merging into HTS was to mend internal conflicts among insurgent groups and strengthen opposition against the Assad regime.[15]

In May 2018, the U.S. State Department designated HTS as a Foreign Terrorist Organization because of its purported affiliation with Al-Qaeda (AQ).[16] The United States claimed that HTS was created as “a vehicle to advance its position in the Syrian uprising and to further its own goals as an [AQ] affiliate.”[17] However, both AQ and HTS deny ties. Abu Jaber, the commander of HTS, emphasized that HTS was “an independent entity and not an extension of previous organizations or factions” – an effort to distance HTS from HTS member Jabhet Fateh al-Sham’s past associations with AQ.[18] HTS has also arrested AQ affiliates in HTS territory to reinforce these claims. However, several intelligence agencies have established that HTS and AQ have remained in contact with one another.[19]


[1] Roggio, Bill. "Al Nusrah Front Launches Joint Assaults with Numerous Syrian Rebel Groups." Long War Journal. Foundation for the Defense of Democracies, 31 July 2013. Web. 04 Aug. 2014.

[2] Roggio, Bill. "Al Nusrah Front Launches Joint Assaults with Numerous Syrian Rebel Groups." Long War Journal. Foundation for the Defense of Democracies, 31 July 2013. Web. 04 Aug. 2014.

[3] Lund, Aron. "Syria's Salafi Insurgents: The Rise of the Syrian Islamic Front." UI Occasional Papers (n.d.): 31. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Mar. 2013. Web. 7 Aug. 2014.

[4] Lund, Aron. "Syria's Salafi Insurgents: The Rise of the Syrian Islamic Front." UI Occasional Papers (n.d.): 31. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Mar. 2013. Web. 7 Aug. 2014.

[5] “Islamic Forces in Syria Announce Establishment of Joint Front Aimed at Toppling Assad, Founding Islamic State; Syrian Website Urges Them to Incorporate All Islamic Forces in Country.” The Middle East Media Research Institute. Memri.org. 26 Dec 2012. 27 Jan. 2020.

[6] “Guide to the Syrian Rebels.” BBC. Bbc.com. 13 Dec. 2013. Web. 26 Jan. 2020.

[7] Atassi, Basma. “Major Syrian rebel groups join forces.” Al Jazeera. 22 Nov. 2013. Web. 26 Jan. 2020.

[8] “Factbox: Syrian rebels against opposition coalition.” Reuters. Thomas Reuters, 25 Sep. 2013. Web. 21 Jul. 2016; Oweis, Khaled Yacoub. "Insight: Saudi Arabia Boosts Salafist Rivals to Al Qaeda in Syria." Reuters. N.p., 01 Oct. 2013. Web. 07 Aug. 2014; “Key Syrian rebels reject National Coalition.” Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera, 25 Sep. 2013. Web. 7 Jul. 2016.

[9] Atassi, Basma. “Major Syrian rebel groups join forces.” Al Jazeera. 22 Nov. 2013. Web. 26 Jan. 2020.

[10] Lang, Hardin et al. “Supporting the Syrian Opposition: Lessons from the Field in the Fight Against ISIS and Assad.” Center for American Progress. Cdn. Americanprogress.org. Sept. 2014. Web. 27 Jan. 2020.

[11] "Guide to the Syrian Rebels." BBC News. N.p., 13 Dec. 2013. Web. 05 Aug. 2014; Lund, Aron. “Islamist Mergers in Syria: Ahrar al-Sham Swallows Suqour al-Sham.” Syria In Crisis. The Carnegie Endowment For International Peace, 23 mar. 2015. Web. 30 Apr. 2016.

[12] Lund, Aron. “Islamist Mergers in Syria: Ahrar al-Sham Swallows Suqour al-Sham.” Syria In Crisis. The Carnegie Endowment For International Peace, 23 mar. 2015. Web. 30 Apr. 2016.

[13] Lund, Aron. “Islamist Mergers in Syria: Ahrar al-Sham Swallows Suqour al-Sham.” Syria In Crisis. The Carnegie Endowment For International Peace, 23 mar. 2015. Web. 30 Apr. 2016; “Syria Frontlines Update.” Syria Conflict Mapping Project. The Carter center, 9 Oct. 2015. Web. 13 May. 2016; Rifai, Ryan. “Syrian group claims control of Idlib province.” Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera, 9 Jun. 2015. Web. 30 Apr. 2016.

[14] Ghanem, Mohammed Alaa. “Syria: An Opportunity in Idlib.” Atlantic Council. 3 Apr. 2015. Web. 27 Jan. 2020.

[15] Joscelyn, Thomas. “Al Qaeda and allies announce ‘new entity’ in Syria.” The Long War Journal. Foundation for Defense of Democracies. 28 Jan. 2017. Web. 9 May. 2019. Davison, John and Boulton, Ralph. “Syria Islamist factions, including former al Qaeda branch, join forces: statement.” Reuters. Thomas Reuters. 28 Jan. 2017. Web. 9 May. 2019.

[16] “Amendments to the Terrorist Designations of al-Nusrah Front.” U.S. Department of State. 31 May 2018. Web. 9 May 2019.

[17] “Amendments to the Terrorist Designations of al-Nusrah Front.” U.S. Department of State. 31 May 2018. Web. 9 May 2019.

[18] Joscelyn, Thomas. “Hay’at Tahrir al Sham leader calls for ‘unity’ in Syrian insurgency.” Long War Journal, February 10, 2017.

[19] “Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS).” Csis.org. Center for Strategic and International Studies. 2018. Web. 4 Nov. 2019.

Organization Structure

Leadership, Name Changes, Size Estimates, Resources, Geographic Locations

    Leadership
  • Leadership
  • Name Changes
  • Size Estimates
  • Resources
  • Geographic Locations

Leadership

Sheikh Abu Rateb (Unknown to Unknown): Rateb was Liwa al-Haqq’s leader and the Islamic Front umbrella organization’s general secretary.[1] Before the outbreak of the Syrian civil war, he was a Syrian businessman. By 2013, Rateb served as Liwa al-Haqq’s primary press representative. The exact dates and process of his ascent to leadership are unknown.[2]

Abderrahman Suweiss (Unknown to Unknown): Suweiss commanded Liwa al-Haqq’s military wing. He was a former paratrooper officer in the Syrian military and was jailed in 1999 for his alleged membership in outlawed Islamist organization Hezb al-Tahrir. Suweiss was released in an amnesty deal at the beginning of the 2011 uprising in Syria.[3] By 2013, he actively headed Liwa al-Haqq’s military wing, but the exact dates of his command are unknown.

Factions: Liwa al-Haqq formed as a cell-based organization in 2012. In its first year, it was composed of at least ten factions that operated as subgroups under the Liwa al-Haqq umbrella name. The extent of the influence of individual leaders and centralized hierarchy is unclear.[4]


[1] "Guide to the Syrian Rebels." BBC News. N.p., 13 Dec. 2013. Web. 05 Aug. 2014.

[2] Lund, Aron."Syria's Salafi Insurgents: The Rise of the Syrian Islamic Front." UI Occasional Papers (n.d.): 31. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Mar. 2013. Web. 7 Aug. 2014.

[3] Lund, Aron."Syria's Salafi Insurgents: The Rise of the Syrian Islamic Front." UI Occasional Papers (n.d.): 33. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Mar. 2013. Web. 7 Aug. 2014.

[4] Lund, Aron."Syria's Salafi Insurgents: The Rise of the Syrian Islamic Front." UI Occasional Papers (n.d.): 33. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Mar. 2013. Web. 7 Aug. 2014.

Name Changes

There are no recorded name changes for this group. Liwa al-Haqq is also known as the Truth Brigade and the Haqq Brigade of Homs.

Size Estimates

There are no publicly available size estimates for this group.

Resources

Liwa al-Haqq received donations from the prominent Kuwait-based Salafi fundraiser Sheikh Hajjaj al-Ajami.[1] Further information about the group’s resources is unknown.


[1] Lund, Aron. "Syria's Salafi Insurgents: The Rise of the Syrian Islamic Front." UI Occasional Papers (n.d.): 31. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Mar. 2013. Web. 7 Aug. 2014; Lund, Aron. "Holy Warriors." Foreign Policy (n.d.): n. page. 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 18 Jul. 2014.

Geographic Locations

Disclaimer: This is a partial list of where the militant organization has bases and where it operates. This does not include information on where the group conducts major attacks or has external influences.

Liwa al-Haqq was considered to be one of the most dominant opposition forces in the Homs region of Syria in 2013.[1] However, the Syrian government seized Homs from Liwa al-Haqq in spring 2014 and subsequently weakened the group.[2] Additional reports indicate that the group was also active in the provinces of Idlib and Raqqa.[3]


[1] "Guide to the Syrian Rebels." BBC News. N.p., 13 Dec. 2013. Web. 05 Aug. 2014.

[2] Lund, Aron. “Islamist Mergers in Syria: Ahrar al-Sham Swallows Suqour al-Sham.” Syria In Crisis. The Carnegie Endowment For International Peace, 23 mar. 2015. Web. 30 Apr. 2016.

[3] Roggio, Bill. "Al Nusrah Front Launches Joint Assaults with Numerous Syrian Rebel Groups." Long War Journal. Foundation for the Defense of Democracies, 31 July 2013. Web. 04 Aug. 2014; “Islamic State closes in on Syrian city of Aleppo.” Reuters. CNBC, 10 Oct. 2015. Web. 21 Jul. 2016.

Strategy

Ideology, Aims, Political Activities, Targets and Tactics

    Ideology and Goals
  • Ideology and Goals
  • Political Activities
  • Targets and Tactics

Ideology and Goals

Liwa al-Haqq’s primary goal was to undermine and oppose the Assad regime.[1] The group was also part of the Islamic Coalition, which sought to implement Shariah law in Syria.[2] The Islamic Coalition also supported the notion that the organization of anti-Assad opposition should be organized only by groups fighting inside Syria.


[1] Zellin, Aaron. "The Syrian Islamic Front: A New Extremist Force." The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. N.p., 4 Feb. 2013. Web. 08 Aug. 2014.

[2] “Key Syrian rebels reject National Coalition.” Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera, 25 Sep. 2013. Web. 7 Jul. 2016.

Political Activities

On September 23, 2013, Liwa al-Haqq joined the Islamic Coalition, a political group that called for the implementation of Shariah law in Syria and for the opposition against the Assad Regime to be run only by groups fighting inside Syria. Liwa al-Haqq also opposed the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, which had the support of the Free Syrian Army’s Syrian National Council, a group comprised mostly of exiled Syrians.[1]


[1] “Factbox: Syrian rebels against opposition coalition.” Reuters. Thomas Reuters, 25 Sep. 2013. Web. 21 Jul. 2016; Oweis, Khaled Yacoub. "Insight: Saudi Arabia Boosts Salafist Rivals to Al Qaeda in Syria." Reuters. N.p., 01 Oct. 2013. Web. 07 Aug. 2014; “Key Syrian rebels reject National Coalition.” Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera, 25 Sep. 2013. Web. 7 Jul. 2016.

Targets and Tactics

Liwa al-Haqq targeted the Assad regime and its associated forces.[1]


[1] Lund, Aron."Syria's Salafi Insurgents: The Rise of the Syrian Islamic Front." UI Occasional Papers (n.d.): 31. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Mar. 2013. Web. 7 Aug. 2014.

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Major Attacks

Disclaimer: These are some selected major attacks in the militant organization's history. It is not a comprehensive listing but captures some of the most famous attacks or turning points during the campaign.

There is little publicly available information about the attacks and operations carried out by Liwa al-Haqq. Liwa al-Haqq’s affiliation with multiple coalitions – including the Syrian Islamic Front, the Free Syrian Army, and the Islamic Front – may contribute to underestimates of the number of attacks mounted by the group. The Islamic Front, for example, claimed responsibility for forty-five attacks across Syria between 2012 and 2015, but Liwa al-Haqq’s direct involvement is unknown.[1]

May 8-22, 2013: Liwa al-Haqq cooperated with several other Syrian opposition groups to overtake a government military encampment in the countryside of Idlib. These groups included Jabhat al-Nusra, Ahrar al-Sham, Liwa al-Tawhid, Suqur al-Sham, Liwa al-Hurriya, Deraa al-Thawra, Deraa al-Jabal, and Ahrar al-Shimal (unknown casualties).[2]

June 14, 2013: Liwa al-Haqq worked with Jabhat al-Nusra, Ahrar al-Sham, Liwa al-Tawhid, and Ahrar al-Shimal to take over a military housing complex in Idlib (unknown casualties).[3]


[1] “Islamic Front: Incidents Over Time.” Global Terrorism Database. Start.umd.edu. Web. 27 Jan. 2020.

[2] Roggio, Bill. "Al Nusrah Front Launches Joint Assaults with Numerous Syrian Rebel Groups." Long War Journal. Foundation for the Defense of Democracies, 31 July 2013. Web. 04 Aug. 2014.

[3] Roggio, Bill. "Al Nusrah Front Launches Joint Assaults with Numerous Syrian Rebel Groups." Long War Journal. Foundation for the Defense of Democracies, 31 July 2013. Web. 04 Aug. 2014.

Interactions

Foreign Designations and Listings, Community Relations, Relations with Other Groups, State Sponsors and External Influences

    Designated/Listed
  • Designated/Listed
  • Community Relations
  • Relationships with Other Groups
  • State Sponsors and External Influences

Designated/Listed

Since December 2015, the United Nations Security Council has tried to assemble a list of terrorist groups in Syria. The United Arab Emirates, Lebanon, and Iraq supported classifying Liwa al-Haqq as a terrorist organization, but they were not able to achieve a unanimous consensus.[1]

Liwa al-Haqq was not a designated terrorist organization by the United States prior to merging with four other organizations (Jabhet Fateh al-Sham, Harakat Nour al-Din al-Zinki, Jaysh al-Sunna, and Jabhat Ansar al-Din) to form Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS) in January of 2017.[2] Following the merger, the U.S. State Department designated HTS as a Foreign Terrorist Organization on May 31, 2018 because of purported connections to Al-Qaeda in Syria.[3]


[1] Miles, Tom and Irish, John. “Syrian terrorist list produces 163 names and no agreement.” Reuters. Thomas Reuters, 17 Feb. 2016. Web. 28 May. 2016; “Countries List Of Armed Groups Acting In Syria.” Reuters. Thomas Reuters, 2016. Web. 7 May. 2016.

[2] Lund, Aron. "Syria's Salafi Insurgents: The Rise of the Syrian Islamic Front." UI Occasional Papers (n.d.): 31. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Mar. 2013. Web. 7 Aug. 2014. Joscelyn, Thomas. “Al Qaeda and allies announce ‘new entity’ in Syria.” The Long War Journal. Foundation for the Defense of Democracies. 28 Jan. 2017. Web. 9 May 2019.

[3] “Amendments to the Terrorist Designations of al-Nusrah Front.” U.S. Department of State. 31 May 2018. Web. 9 May 2019.

Community Relations

There is no publicly available information about the relationship between this group and community in which it resides.

Relationships with Other Groups

Liwa al-Haqq was active in multiple Syrian umbrella organizations and movements. It was a member of the Syrian Islamic Front (SIF) umbrella organization, which was founded in 2012 to unite Syrian Islamic opposition forces and pursue a Syrian state governed by Shariah law.[1]  While the SIF refused to come under the command of the Free Syrian Army’s (FSA) Supreme Military Council (SMC), it regularly coordinated military maneuvers with SMC-affiliated brigades.[2] Liwa al-Haqq was also affiliated with the FSA.[3] However, it began to distance itself from the FSA on September 23, 2013 when it formed the Islamic Coalition with thirteen other opposition groups. The Islamic Coalition was a political group that called for the implementation of Shariah in Syria and for the opposition to the Assad Regime to be run only by groups fighting inside Syria. It also opposed the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, which had the support of the FSA’s Syrian National Council, a group comprised mostly of exiled Syrians.[4] In November 2013, Liwa al-Haqq left the FSA to merge into the newly formed Islamic Front, which coincided with the dissolution of the SIF.[5]

The Islamic Front was the largest alliance of Syrian opposition forces formed during the Syrian civil war to date. Liwa al-Haqq, joined by six other Islamist militant groups (Ahrar al-Sham, Ansar al-Sham, Suqquor al-Sham, Liwa al-Tawhid, Jaysh al-Islam, and the Kurdish Islamic Front), created The Islamic Front with intent to replace the Assad regime with an Islamic government. At its peak, the alliance had 40,000-70,000 fighters.[6] Liwa al-Haqq commander Sheikh Abu Rateb served as the organization’s general secretary until the Islamic Front disbanded in mid-2014 due to disagreements between Ahrar al-Sham and Jaysh al-Islam.[7] In December 2014, Liwa al-Haqq reportedly merged with Ahrar al-Sham.[8] The degree of Liwa al-Haqq’s independence from Ahrar al-Sham from 2014 to 2017 is disputed.

In January 2017, Liwa al-Haqq merged with four other groups to form the umbrella organization Hayat Tahrir al-Sham (HTS). The other groups included Jabhet Fateh al-Sham (formerly Al-Qaeda’s al-Nusra Front), Harakat Nour al-Din al-Zinki, Jaysh al-Sunna, and Jabhat Ansar al-Din. The purpose of this merger was to mend internal conflicts among insurgent groups and strengthen opposition against the Assad Regime.[9] Liwa al-Haqq’s degree of autonomy within HTS today is unknown, but no reports suggest that Liwa al-Haqq has fully abandoned its independence as a faction within HTS.


[1] Zellin, Aaron. "The Syrian Islamic Front: A New Extremist Force." The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. N.p., 4 Feb. 2013. Web. 08 Aug. 2014; Zelin, Aaron, and Charles Lister. "The Crowning of the Syrian Islamic Front." Foreign Policy. N.p., 24 Jun. 2013. Web. 18 Jul. 2014.

[2] Guide to the Syrian Rebels. BBC News. N.p., 13 Dec. 2013. Web. 20 Jul. 2014.

[3] Roggio, Bill. "Al Nusrah Front Launches Joint Assaults with Numerous Syrian Rebel Groups." Long War Journal. Foundation for the Defense of Democracies, 31 July 2013. Web. 04 Aug. 2014.

[4] “Factbox: Syrian rebels against opposition coalition.” Reuters. Thomas Reuters, 25 Sep. 2013. Web. 21 Jul. 2016. Oweis, Khaled Yacoub. "Insight: Saudi Arabia Boosts Salafist Rivals to Al Qaeda in Syria." Reuters. N.p., 01 Oct. 2013. Web. 07 Aug. 2014. “Key Syrian rebels reject National Coalition.” Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera, 25 Sep. 2013. Web. 7 Jul. 2016.

[5] Roggio, Bill. “4 battalions from Qatar-backed Islamist brigade defect to wage ‘armed jihadist struggle.’” The Long War Journal. Foundation for Defense of Democracies. 5 Dec. 2013. Web. 21 Jul. 2016. Lund, Aron. The Politics of the Islamic Front, Part 1: Structure and Support." Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. N.p., 14 Jan. 2014. Web. 01 Jul. 2014.

[6] Lund, Aron. “The Politics of the Islamic Front, Part 1: Structure and Support." Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. N.p., 14 Jan. 2014. Web. 01 Jul. 2014; Hassan, Hassan. “Front to Back.” Foreign Policy. The FP Group, 4 Mar. 2014. Web. 7 May, 2016.

[7] "Guide to the Syrian Rebels." BBC News. N.p., 13 Dec. 2013. Web. 05 Aug. 2014; Lund, Aron. “Islamist Mergers in Syria: Ahrar al-Sham Swallows Suqour al-Sham.” Syria In Crisis. The Carnegie Endowment For International Peace, 23 mar. 2015. Web. 30 Apr. 2016.

[8] Lund, Aron. “Islamist Mergers in Syria: Ahrar al-Sham Swallows Suqour al-Sham.” Syria In Crisis. The Carnegie Endowment For International Peace, 23 mar. 2015. Web. 30 Apr. 2016.

[9] Joscelyn, Thomas. “Al Qaeda and allies announce ‘new entity’ in Syria.” The Long War Journal. Foundation for Defense of Democracies. 28 Jan. 2013. Web. 9 May. 2019. Davison, John and Boulton, Ralph. “Syria Islamist factions, including former al Qaeda branch, join forces: statement.” Reuters. Thomas Reuters. 28 Jan. 2013. Web. 9 May. 2019.

State Sponsors and External Influences

Some analysts claim that Saudi Arabia played a large role in establishing the Islamic Front, the umbrella organization of which Liwa al-Haqq was a member. The Islamic Front had 40,000-70,000 members at its peak, which made it Syria’s largest alliance of opposition forces.[1]


[1] Hussein, Tam. "The Ansar Al-Sham Battalions." Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. N.p., 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 07 Aug. 2014; Lund, Aron. "The Politics of the Islamic Front, Part 1: Structure and Support." Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. N.p., 14 Jan. 2014. Web. 07 Aug. 2014.

Maps

The project develops a series of interactive diagrams that “map” relationships among groups and show how those relationships change over time. The user can change map settings to display different features (e.g., leadership changes), adjust the time scale, and trace individual groups.