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Leonard Weiss

Leonard Weiss

Visiting Scholar

not in residence

Research Interests

nuclear nonproliferation; energy; South Asia; ballistic missile defense; Middle East


Leonard Weiss is a visiting scholar at Stanford University’s Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC). He is also a national advisory board member of the Center for Arms control and Non-Proliferation in Washington, DC. He began his professional career as a PhD researcher in mathematical system theory at the Research Institute for Advanced Studies in Baltimore. This was followed by tenured professorships in applied mathematics and electrical engineering at Brown University and the University of Maryland. During this period he published widely in the applied mathematics literature. In 1976 he received a Congressional Science Fellowship that resulted in a career change. For more than two decades he worked for Senator John Glenn as the staff director of both the Senate Subcommittee on Energy and Nuclear Proliferation and the Committee on Governmental Affairs. He was the chief architect of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 1978 and legislation that created the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. In addition, he led notable investigations of the nuclear programs of India and Pakistan. Since retiring from the Senate staff in 1999, he has published numerous articles on nonproliferation issues for the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Arms Control Today, and the Nonproliferation Review. His current research interests include an assessment of the impact on the nonproliferation regime of nuclear trade with non-signers of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, and more generally the relationship of energy security concerns with nonproliferation.


1. “Integral Transforms and Time-varying Systems”, Ph.D.Thesis, Johns Hopkins University, 1962. Available as “Representation and Analysis of Signals, Part xiv. Integral Transforms and Time-Varying Systems”, E.E. Department, Johns Hopkins University, May, 1962.

2. “The Delta Function and the Fourier Integral”, Proc. IRE, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 217-218, February, 1962.

3. “Prony’s Method, Z-Transforms and Pade Approximation”, (with R.N. McDonough), SIAM Review, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 145-149, April 1963.

4. “On A Question Related to the Control of Linear Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. AC-9, No. 2, pp. 176-177, April 1964.

5. “Weighting Patterns and the Controllability and Observability of Linear Systems”, Proc. of Nat’l. Academy of Science, Vol. 51, No. 6, pp. 1122-1127, June 1964.

6. “On the Foundations of Transfer Function Analysis”, Int’l J. Engr. Sci., Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 343-365, 1964.

7. “The Concepts of Differential Controllability and Differential Observability”, J. of Math. Analysis and Applications, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 442-449, April 1965.

8. “Contributions to Linear System Theory”, (with R.E. Kalman), Int’l J. Engr. Sci., Vol. 3, pp. 141-171, 1965.

9. “Dual Dynamical Systems and Their Representation by System Functions”, Int’l J. of Control, Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 475-485, 1965.

10. “On System Functions with the Property of Separability”, Int’l J. of Control, Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 487-496, 1965.

11. “On the Stability of Systems Defined over a Finite Time Interval”, (with E.F. Infante), Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci., Vo. . 54, No. 1, pp. 44-48, July 1965.

12. “Finite Time Stability under Perturbing Forces and on Product Spaces”, (with E.F. Infante), IEEE Trans. on Auto. Control, Vol. AC-12, No. 1, pp. 54-59, 1967.

13. “On the Controllability of Delay-Differential Systems”, J. SIAM Control, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 575-587, 1967.

14. “Sensitivity and Stability Analysis on a Finite Time Interval”, Proc. Second IFAC Symposium on Sensitivity and Adaptivity, Dubrovnik, pp. A26-A36, 1968.

15. “Converse Theorems for Finite Time Stability”, J. SIAM Appl. Math., Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 1319-1324, 1968.

16. “On the Structure Theory of Linear Differential Systems”,  J. SIAM Control, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 659-680, 1968.

17. “Dolezal’s Theorem, Linear Algebra with Continouosly Parametrized Elements, and Time-Varying Systems”, (with P. Falb), Mathematical Systems Theory, Vol. 3, pp. 67-75, 1969.

18. “Lectures on Controllability and Observability”, Seminar on Controllability and Observability sponsored by Centro Internazionale Matematico Estivo, (CIME) pp. 205-287, Edizioni Cremonese, Rome, 1969.

19. “On Uniform and Nonuniform Finite Time Stability”, IEEE Trans. Auto. Control, Vol. AC-l4, No. 3, pp. 313-314, 1969.

20. “New Results in the Theory of Controllability for Various System Models”, Proceedings Joint Automatic Control Conference, pp. 453-456, 1969.

21. “An Algebraic Criterion for Controllability for Linear Systems with Time Delay”, IEEE Trans. Auto. Control, Vol. AC-15, pp. 453-456.

22. “Controllability for Various Linear and Nonlinear Systems Models”, in Seminar on Differential Ecuations and Dynamical Systems,
Springer Verlag, pp. 250-261, 1970.

23. “Finite-Time Stability of Linear and Nonlinear Systems-- a Rapprochement”, Proceedings, Mexico 1971 International Conference on Systems, Networks, and Computers, Vol. 1, pp. 147-149.

24. “Recent Results in the Theory of Controllability for Functional Differential Systems”, Proc. 5th Annual Princeton Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, pp. 224-228, 1971.

25. “Stability of Linear Discrete Systems in a Finite Time Interval”, (with J.S. Lee), (in Russian translation) Avtomatika i Telemkhanika, Vol. 32, No. 12, pp. 63-68, 1971. (in English retranslation), Automation and Remote Control, pp. 1915-1919, May 1972.

26. “Finite-Time Stability of Linear Differential Equations”, (with J.S. Lee), in Ordinary Differential Equations, (L. Weiss, Editor), Academic Press, pp. 569-580, 1972.

27. “Controllability, Realization, and Stability of Discrete Time Systems”, SIAM J. Control, Vol. 10, pp. 230-251, 1972.

28. “Stability of Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems”, (with L. Lam), Int’l  J. Control, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 465-470, 1973.

29. “Final Stability with respect to Time-Varying Sets”, (with L. Lam), J. Franklin Institute, Vol. 298, pp. 415-421, 1974.

30. “On Controlling Shocks in Quasilinear Partial Differential Equations”, (with R. Printiss), Proceedings, USC Int’l Conf. on Differential Equations, 1975, (Abstract Only)

31. “EES in Congress”, IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 19-20, 1977.

32. “Nonproliferation Strategy for the 70’s”, (with 15 others), Report of 18th Strategy for Peace Conference, Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, Iowa, 1977

33. “Nuclear Safeguards: A Congressional Perspective”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 34, pp. 27-33, 1978.

34. “Reprocessing and Enrichment: Are There Alternatives Which Are More Proliferation Proof?”, in Reconciling Energy Needs and Nonproliferation, Karl Kaiser (ed.), Verlag, pp. 96-98, 1980.

35. Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Proliferation: Japanese and American Views (Book Review and Essay), Series in Contemporary Asian Studies, University of Maryland, pp. 43-48, 1983.

36. “Atoms for Peace and Nuclear Proliferation”, in Atoms for Peace: An Analysis After Thirty Years, Joseph F. Pilat et al. (eds.), Westview Press, pp.131-141, 1985.

37. “Acid Rain: Present and Proposed Laws”, in Acid Rain: How Serious and What to Do, D. Hafemeister (ed.), American Association of Physics Teachers, 1986.

38. “The Concept of Timely Warning in the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 1978,” Congressional Record, 21 March 1988, S2639 and S2646; see also Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Testimony of Sen John Glenn, appendix, 15 December 1987, in Nuclear Nonproliferation Factbook (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, December 1994), 155–78.

39. “Tighten up on Nuclear Cheaters”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 11-12, 1991.

40. “The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty: Strengths and Gaps”, in Fighting Proliferation, (H. Sokolski, Ed.), Air University Press, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, pp.31-55, 1996.

41. “Sanctions as a Nonproliferation Tool”, Proceedings of the Carnegie Conference on Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC, 1997.

42. “The Current Debate Over Sanctions and Nonproliferation”, Proceedings of the 7th Carnegie Nonproliferation Conference, Washington, DC, 1999.

43. “The Nexus of Counterterrorism and Nonproliferation Policy”, The Monitor, Center for International Trade and Security, University of Georgia, Vol.8, No.1, pp.3-7, 2002.

44. “Nuclear Weapon States and the Grand Bargain”, Arms Control Today, pp.21-25, Dec. 2003.

45. “Pakistan: It’s Déjà Vu All Over Again”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May/June 2004.

46. “Atoms for Peace”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 59, No. 6, November, 2004.

47. “Turning a Blind Eye Again? The Khan Network’s History and Lessons for U.S. Policy”, Arms Control Today, March 2005.

48.  “A High-Stakes Nuclear Gamble”, Op-Ed, LA Times, December 30, 2005.

49. “The U.S.-India Nuclear Agreement”, Testimony before the House International Relations Committee, May 11, 2006.

50. “The A.Q. Khan Network: Case Closed?”, Testimony before the House Subcommittee on International Terrorism and Nonproliferation, May 25, 2006. Hearing Record,  pp. 9-17.

51.  “Power Points: The U.S.-India Nuclear Agreement is the Wrong Deal with the Wrong Energy Source”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 62, No.3, May/June 2006, pp. 21, 63.

52.  “Think Again: U.S.-India Nuclear Deal”, (with T. Graham and L. Tomero), Foreign Policy, June 24, 2006.

53. “Congress Must Stop an Attack on Iran”, (with L. Diamond), Op-Ed, LA Times, February 5, 2007.

54.  “Criminal Pursuits”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March/April 2007, p.7.

55.  “U.S.-India Nuclear Cooperation: Better Later than Sooner”, The Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 429-457, November, 2007.

56.  “U.S.-India Nuclear Agreement is Reckless Foreign Policy” Stanford Report, October 22, 2008, p.14.

57.  “Reliable Energy Supply and Nonproliferation”, Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp.269-284, July, 2009.

58.  “Israel’s Future and Iran’s Nuclear Program”, Middle East Policy, Vol. XVI, No.3, pp. 79-88, Fall 2009.

59.  “India and the NPT”, Strategic Analysis, Vol.34, No. 2, pp. 255-271, 2010.

60. “Spreading the Bomb for Profit”, Book Review, Arms Control Today, Vol. 40, No. 5, pp. 42-47, 2010. 

61. “Re: Some Nukes”, letter in response to Hendrik Hertzberg’s article (March 22, 2010), The New Yorker, April 5, 2010.

62. “Israel’s 1979 Nuclear Test and the U.S. Cover-up”, Middle East Policy, Vol. XVIII, No.4, pp. 83-95, Winter 2011.

63. “The Lavon Affair: How a false-flag operation led to war and the Israeli bomb”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 69, Issue 4, pp. 58-68, July-August, 2013.

64. “The 1979 South Atlantic Flash: The Case for an Israeli Nuclear Test”, in Moving Beyond Pretense: Nuclear Power and Nonproliferation, (H.Sokolski, Ed.), Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press, Chapter 13, pp. 345-371, June 2014.

65. “The Nonproliferation Regime and its Discontents”, in Nuclear Weapons Materials Gone Missing: What Does History Teach?, (H. Sokolski, Ed.), Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press, Chapter 5, pp. 75-86, November 2014.

66. “On Fear and Nuclear Terrorism”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 71, Issue 2, pp. 15-20, March 2015.

67.  “Nuclear Vulnerability”, The New Yorker, April 20, 2015, p.3.

68. “Safeguards and the NPT: Early History Portended Current Problems”, (to appear, 2015).

Ordinary Differential Equations (L. Weiss, Ed.), Academic Press, 1972.