Jamaat-ul-Ahrar (JA)

Jamaat-ul-Ahrar (JA) is a faction of the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) militant group that seeks to establish an Islamic caliphate governed by Shariah law.

AT A GLANCE

Overview

Brief Summary of the Organization's History.

Organization

How does a group organize? Who leads it? How does it finance operations?

Strategy

How does a group fight? What are its aims and ideologies? What are some of its major attacks?

Major Attacks

What are the group's most famous attacks? What are some key attacks in the group's evolution?

Interactions

What is the group's relationship with the community? How does it interact with other groups?

Maps

What is the group's relationship with other militants over time?

Key Statistics

2014 First Recorded Activity:
2014 First Attack:
2017 Last Recorded Activity:

Contact

mappingmilitants [at] lists [dot] stanford [dot] edu

How to Cite:

Mapping Militant Organizations. "Jamaat-ul-Ahrar." Stanford University. Last modified July 2018. <https://internal.fsi.stanford.edu/content/mmp-jamaat-ul-ahrar >

Overview

Brief History

    Overview
  • Overview
  • Narrative

Overview

 

FormedAugust 2014
DisbandedGroup is active.
First AttackNovember 2, 2014: JA conducted a suicide attack at the Wagah border crossing between India and Pakistan (61 killed, 150+ wounded)
Last AttackJuly 11, 2017: JA and the Islamic State claimed joint responsibility for an attack on the Pakistani police, during which Islamic gunmen killed a senior police official (4 killed, 0 wounded).
UpdatedJuly 6, 2018

 

Jamaat-ul-Ahrar (JA) is a faction of the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) that temporarily splintered away in 2014. JA split from the TTP in August 2014, under the leadership of former TTP commander Omar Khalid Khorasani. This separation was a result of the growing tensions between Khorasani and the then leader of the TTP, Maulana Fazlullah. JA seeks to overthrow the Pakistani government, establish a global Islamic caliphate, and obtain Pakistan’s nuclear weapons. In 2015, JA realigned with TTP, while still maintaining autonomy to launch and claim attacks. The group has continued to launch attacks within Pakistan and Afghanistan and pledged allegiance to TTP in 2015 and IS-KP in 2014.

Narrative

Jamaat-ul-Ahrar (JA), translated as the “Assembly of the Free” splintered from the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) in August 2014, due to ideological disagreement between its leader, Omar Khalid Khorasani, and the then leader of the TTP, Maulana Fazlullah.  Khorasani disagreed with TTP’s decision to pursue peace talks with the Pakistani government, and criticized the TTP for straying from its original goal of establishing a global Islamic caliphate.[i] Therefore, Khorasani founded JA as a counter-umbrella organization to the TTP, which would aim to establish an Islamic state in Pakistan.[ii]

In November 2014, JA conducted its first suicide bombing at the Wagah border outside of Lahore. The attack killed 61 people and injured more than 110. JA spokesman Ehsanullah Ehsan asserted that the attack was an act of revenge for the Pakistani government’s "killing of innocent people in North Waziristan."[iii] In response, the Pakistani military killed 13 JA fighters in aerial strikes in Khyber Agency.[iv]

In March 2015, following a joint consultative meeting with Lashkar-e-Islam, JA announced that it would realign with the TTP, while working to reform the militant organization.[v] One key factor that contributed to the JA’s realignment with the TTP was the desire to present a unified front against the Pakistani military’s large and ongoing counter-terror offensive, Operation Zarb-e-Azb, which began in June 2014.[vi] However, despite the nominal reunification of the groups, JA continued to function with a large degree of autonomy, releasing independent statements on attacks, and issuing its own publications.[vii]

In July 2016, Khorasani was reportedly killed by a U.S. airstrike in eastern Nangahar Province.[viii] However, the reports were deemed false in 2017 after the group issued a  press statement explicitly denying all reports of his death. Evidence of this has yet to be presented.[ix] JA has continued to claim responsibility for large-scale suicide attacks, and still operates semi-autonomously in Pakistan. In February 2017, JA launched Operation Ghazi in honor of Islamic fundamentalist Abdul Rashid Ghazi, who was killed by Pakistani security forces in 2007 during the Siege of Lal Masjid.  As part of this operation, JA issued a statement naming various targets in Pakistan. JA’s stated targets include the following entities: Pakistani security forces and intelligence services, all legislative bodies, the judiciary and its supporting institutions, secular political parties, interest-based economic institutions, constructive and welfare organizations, government or Western-influenced educational institutions, and liberal writers, leaders, and media figures. JA forbade operations in Islamic places of worship, such as mosques and schools, as well as in public gathering places, such as markets and playgrounds, regardless of the presence of enemy forces. The group also claimed that it would not attack public welfare spots or non-Muslim places of worship, unless they were used in a combat-capacity by enemy forces.[x] Despite these claims, on March 31, 2017, JA conducted a suicide bombing at a market in Parachinar, with the intended target of a women’s mosque.[xi] In 2018, the group has maintained a relatively low-profile but continues to carry out attacks within Pakistan and swears allegiance to the main TTP leadership. In addition, the group has conducted attacks in conjunction with IS-KP, which it pledged allegiance to in 2014.[xii]



[i] Roggio, Bill. US State Department lists Jamaat-ul-Ahrar as terrorist group.” FDD’s Long War Journal, 3 Aug. 2016, http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2016/08/us-state-department-lists-jamaat-ul-ahrar-as-terrorist-group.php;  Sherazi, Zahir Shah. "TTP Chief Mullah Fazlullah ousts Commander Umar Khorasani." Dawn, 7 Sept. 2014, https://www.dawn.com/news/1130446; Rana, Muhammad Amir. "Changing the militant landscape in Pakistan.” Geo TV, https://www.geo.tv/latest/131808-jamaat-ul-ahrar-a-new-militant-threat-in-pakistan.

[ii] Roggio, Bill. "Taliban splinter group Jamaat-ul-Ahrar forms in northwestern Pakistan.” Long War Journal, 26 Aug. 2014, www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/08/taliban_splinter_gro.php.

[iii] Farooq, Umar, Zahir Sherazi, and Wasim Riaz. "TTP splinter groups claim Wagah attack; 60 dead.” Dawn, 3 Nov. 2014, https://www.dawn.com/news/1142006/ttp-splinter-groups-claim-wagah-attack-60-dead.

[iv] "Wagah attack suspects die in air strikes: Pakistan military.” Indo-Asian News Service, 12 Nov. 2014, www.india.com/news/world/wagah-attack-suspects-die-in-air-strikes-pakistan-military-191955/.

[v] Roggio, Bill. "Pakistani jihadist groups, Lashkar-i-Islam merge into the Movement of the Taliban in Pakistan.” Long War Journal, 12 Mar. 2015, www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2015/03/pakistani-jihadist-groups-lashkar-i-islam-merge-into-the-movement-of-the-taliban-in-pakistan.php.

[vi] “Pakistan's Jamaat-ul-Ahrar: A Violent Domestic Threat.” Jamestown Foundation: Terrorism Monitor, vol. 14, no. 18, 16 Sept. 2016, http://www.refworld.org/docid/57dffc514.html.

[vii] Roggio, Bill, and Caleb Weiss. "Pakistani Taliban faction showcases training camp, suicide attacks.” Long War Journal, 2 Feb. 2017, www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2017/02/pakistani-taliban-faction-showcases-training-camp-suicide-attacks.php.

[viii] Ahmad, Jibran. "Pakistan says leader of school attack killed in U.S. drone strike." Reuters. July 14, 2016. reuters.com/article/idUSKCN0ZT21O.

[ix] Roggio, Bill. “Leader of Jamaat-ul-Ahrar emerges after reports of his death.” Long War Journal, 22 Oct. 2017. https://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2017/10/leader-of-jamaat-ul-ahra...

[x] “Strategic Code of Conduct for ‘Operation Ghazi,’” FATA Research Centre, 16 Feb. 2017, https://frc.org.pk/breaking/strategic-code-of-conduct-for-operation-ghazi/.

[xi] Akbar, A. and Hassan Farhan. "22 killed in explosion outside imambargah in Parachinar market.” Dawn, 31 Mar. 2017, https://www.dawn.com/news/1323973/explosion-in-parachinar-market-5-killed.

[xii] “Jaamat-ul-Ahrar/Jamatul Ahrar” Terrorism Research & Analysis Consortium.

 

Organizational Structure

Leadership, Name Changes, Size Estimates, Resources, Geographic Locations

    Leadership
  • Leadership
  • Omar Khalid Khorasani (August 2014 to present):
  • Ehsanullah Ehsan (2014 to April 17, 2017):

Leadership

This section describes various leaders, their deputies, and other important officials in the militant organization.

Omar Khalid Khorasani (August 2014 to present):

Omar Khalid Khorasani split from the TTP and founded JA in 2014, becoming the group’s first leader.[i] Despite reports that Khorasani had been killed in a U.S. air strike in 2016, the leader issued a press statement in October of 2017 as an explicit denial of all reports.[ii]



[i] Ahmad, Jibran. "Pakistan says leader of school attack killed in U.S. drone strike." Reuters. 14 July, 2016. www.reuters.com/article/us-pakistan-taliban-idUSKCN0ZT21O.

[ii] Roggio, Bill. “Leader of Jamaat-ul-Ahrar emerges after reports of his death.” Long War Journal, 22 Oct. 2017. https://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2017/10/leader-of-jamaat-ul-ahra...

 

Ehsanullah Ehsan (2014 to April 17, 2017):

Ehsanullah Ehsan gained prominence for his role as the spokesman of JA. However, in April 2017 he surrendered to Pakistani security forces and went to jail.[i]



[i] Samaa Web Desk. "Ehsanullah Ehsan of Jamaat-ul-Ahrar has surrendered: DG ISPR." Samaa. 17 Apr. 2017.  https://www.samaa.tv/pakistan/2017/04/ahsanullah-ahsan-of-jamaat-ul-ahra....

 

    Name Changes
  • Name Changes
  • Size Estimates
  • Resources
  • Geographic Locations

Name Changes

There are no recorded name changes for this group. 

Size Estimates

There are no reported size estimates for JA.

Resources

JA has allegedly received funding and material support from IS-KP. JA has supposedly used this support to launch deadly attacks on Pakistani soil.[i]

JA recruits members from TTP factions from Mohmand, Khyber, Charsadda, and Peshawar, as well as from other tribal districts bordering Pakistan and Afghanistan, such as Bajaur and Arakzai.[ii]



[i] Zahid, Farhan. "Jamaat ul-Ahrar: The New Face of Pakistan’s Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan.” Aberfoyle International Security, 29 Oct. 2014, http://www.aberfoylesecurity.com/?p=955.

[ii] Roggio, Bill. "Taliban splinter group Jamaat-ul-Ahrar forms in northwestern Pakistan." Long War Journal. 26 Aug. 2014. www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/08/taliban_splinter_gro.php; "Jamaat-ul-Ahrar / Jamatul Ahrar (TTPJA)." Terrorism Research & Analysis Consortium. https://www.trackingterrorism.org/group/jamaat-ul-ahrar-jamatul-ahrar.

 

Geographic Locations

Disclaimer: This is a partial list of where the militant organization has bases and where it operates. This does not include information on where the group conducts major attacks or has external influences.

JA’s main base of operation is in Mohmand Agency of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan.[i] However, the group’s operations extend throughout Pakistan, and even across the border into Afghanistan.[ii]



[i] Khan, Riaz, and Asif Shahzad. "Suicide bombings kill 6 in northwestern Pakistan." The Daily Progress. February 15, 2017. www.dailyprogress.com/official-suicide-attack-kills-in-northwestern-paki....

[ii] Roggio, Bill. "Islamic State targets Sufi shrine in Pakistan suicide bombing." Long War Journal. 16 Feb. 2017. www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2017/02/islamic-state-targets-sufi-shrin....

 

Strategy

Ideology, Aims, Political Activities, Targets, and Tactics

    Ideology and Goals
  • Ideology and Goals
  • Political Activities
  • Targets and Tactics

Ideology and Goals

JA seeks to overthrow the Pakistani government and establish an Islamic caliphate governed by Shariah law.[i] Khorasani has also expressed the goal of obtaining nuclear weapons from the Pakistani government.[ii]



[i] Roggio, Bill. "Taliban splinter group Jamaat-ul-Ahrar forms in northwestern Pakistan.” Long War Journal, 26 Aug. 2014, www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/08/taliban_splinter_gro.php.

[ii] Roggio, Bill. "US State Department lists Jamaat-ul-Ahrar as terrorist group.” Long War Journal, 3 Aug. 2016, www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2016/08/us-state-department-lists-jamaat-ul-ahrar-as-terrorist-group.php.

 

Political Activities

JA does not directly participate in Pakistani politics. JA has conducted attacks in response to political action. For example, on March 7, 2016, JA conducted a suicide bombing attack at a court in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. JA asserted that this attack was an act of revenge for the hanging of Mumtaz Qadri, a man who killed the governor of Punjab in 2011 for opposing blasphemy laws.[i] Furthermore, in February 2017, JA officially listed secular political parties as official targets.[ii] Finally, JA also publishes a monthly magazine, Ihyae Kilafat, which covers a range of topics, including political matters.[iii]



[i] "Pakistan bomb: Fourteen killed in Qadri 'revenge' attack.” BBC, 7 Mar. 2016, www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-35743295.

[ii] “Strategic Code of Conduct for ‘Operation Ghazi,’” FATA Research Centre, 16 Feb. 2017, https://frc.org.pk/breaking/strategic-code-of-conduct-for-operation-ghazi/.

[iii] "Monitoring militant activity online - August/September 2016." Jane’s by IHS Markit, Aug./Sept. 2016, http://janes.ihs.com/IntelligenceReview/Display/1783170.

 

Targets and Tactics

JA’s attacks have largely consisted of suicide bombings and the occasional use of vehicle-borne IED attacks.[i] JA has also launched two official operations. The first, Operation Saud-ul-Raad, was launched in 2016 as a series of martyrdom and hit and run attacks.[ii] By early 2017, JA claimed that Operation Saud-ul-Raad had achieved its targets, and announced that it would move on to conducting larger operations.[iii] Therefore, in February 2017, JA launched Operation Ghazi in honor of Islamic fundamentalist Abdul Rashid Ghazi. As part of this operation, JA issued a statement naming various targets in Pakistan. JA’s stated targets include the following entities: Pakistani security forces and intelligence services, all legislative bodies, the judiciary and its supporting institutions, secular political parties, interest-based economic institutions, constructive and welfare organizations, government or Western-influenced educational institutions, and liberal writers, leaders, and media figures. JA forbade operations in Islamic places of worship, such as mosques and schools, as well as in public gathering places, such as markets and playgrounds, regardless of the presence of enemy forces. The group also claimed that it would not attack public welfare spots or non-Muslim places of worship, unless they were used in a combat-capacity by enemy forces.[iv] However, despite these claims, JA conducted a suicide bombing at a market in Parachinar on March 31, 2017, with the intended target of a women’s mosque.[v]



[i] Mohmand, Mureeb. "Targeting peace committee: Twin IED blasts in Mohmand Agency kill 7." The Express Tribune. 7 Nov. 2014. https://tribune.com.pk/story/787394/targetting-peace-committee-twin-ied-blasts-in-mohmand-agency-kill-7/.

[ii] “At least 72 killed in Lahore. Taliban has claimed responsibility.” South Front, 27 Mar. 2017, https://southfront.org/suicide-attack-kills-at-least-69-in-lahore-army-deployed/ .

[iii] “Jamaat-ul-Ahrar gives details of its targets in a video.” Pakistan Today, 14 Feb. 2017, https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/02/14/jamaat-ul-ahrar-gives-details-of-its-targets-in-a-video/.

[iv] “Strategic Code of Conduct for ‘Operation Ghazi,’” FATA Research Centre, 16 Feb. 2017, https://frc.org.pk/breaking/strategic-code-of-conduct-for-operation-ghazi/.

[v] Akbar, A. and Hassan Farhan. "22 killed in explosion outside Imambargah in Parachinar market.” Dawn, 31 Mar. 2017, https://www.dawn.com/news/1323973/explosion-in-parachinar-market-5-killed.

 

Major Attacks

First Attacks, Largest Attacks, Notable Attacks

Major Attacks

Disclaimer: These are some selected major attacks in the militant organization's history. It is not a comprehensive listing, but captures some of the most famous attacks or turning points during the campaign.

November 2, 2014: JA conducted a suicide attack at the Wagah border crossing between India and Pakistan (61 killed, 150+ wounded).[i]

December 29, 2015: JA conducted a vehicle-borne IED attack targeting a federal government office in Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (26 killed, 50 wounded).[ii]

March 7, 2016: JA conducted a suicide bombing attack at a court in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (14 killed, 30 wounded).[iii]

March 27, 2016: JA conducted a suicide bombing attack targeting the Christian minority population in Gulshan-e-Iqbal Park, Lahore (72 killed, 300 wounded).[iv]

August 8, 2016: JA and the Islamic State claimed joint responsibility for a suicide bombing targeting a hospital in the city of Quetta (70 killed, 120 wounded).[v]

September 16, 2016: JA conducted a suicide bombing attack targeting a mosque in the FATA (30 killed, 34 wounded).[vi]

February 22, 2017: JA conducted a suicide bombing attack against Charsadda Court in Pakistan (7 killed, 22 wounded).[vii]

March 31, 2017: JA conducted a suicide bombing attack at a market in Parachinar, which reportedly targeted a women's mosque (22 killed, 57 wounded).[viii]

June 23, 2017: JA and the Islamic State claimed joint responsibility for a suicide car bombing outside the office of Balochistan’s police chief (13 killed, 20 wounded).[ix

July 11, 2017: JA and the Islamic State claimed joint responsibility for an attack on the Pakistani police, during which Islamic gunmen killed a senior police official (4 killed, 0 wounded).[x]



[i] Farooq, Umar, Zahir Sherazi, and Wasim Riaz. "TTP splinter groups claim Wagah attack; 60 dead.” Dawn, 3 Nov. 2014, https://www.dawn.com/news/1142006/ttp-splinter-groups-claim-wagah-attack-60-dead; “Tehrik-E Taliban Pakistan.” South Asia Terrorism Portal, n.d., http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/terroristoutfits/ttp.htm.

[ii] Bureau of Counterterrorism and Countering Violent Extremism, "Chapter 2. Country Reports: South and Central Asia Overview.” U.S. Department of State, 2015, https://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2015/257518.htm.

[iii] "Pakistan bomb: Fourteen killed in Qadri 'revenge' attack.” BBC, 7 Mar. 2016, www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-35743295.

[iv] "Lahore attack: Pakistan 'detains 200' after Easter blast.” BBC, 29 Mar. 2016, www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-35916578.

[v] "Quetta hospital bombing: Pakistan Taliban claim attack.” BBC, 8 Aug. 2016, www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-37015640.

[vi] Akbar, Ali. "Curfew in Mohmand as suicide attack death toll rises to 30.” Dawn, 17 Sept. 2016, https://www.dawn.com/news/1284337.

[vii] Muhammad, Faiz. "‘Uzbek’ militants storm court in Charsadda; seven killed.” Dawn, 22 Feb. 2017, https://www.dawn.com/news/1316234.

[viii] Akbar, A. and Hassan Farhan. "22 killed in explosion outside imambargah in Parachinar market.” Dawn, 31 Mar. 2017, https://www.dawn.com/news/1323973/explosion-in-parachinar-market-5-killed.

[ix] Mohammad Zafar, “Suicide car bombing kills 13 in Quetta.” The Express Tribune, 23 June, 2017, https://tribune.com.pk/story/1442639/5-killed-bomb-explosion-outside-igp-office-quetta/.

[x] Yousafzai, Gul. “Gunmen kill four police in Pakistani city of Quetta.” Reuters, 13 July, 2017, http://ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCAKBN19Y143-OCATP.

 

Interactions

Foreign Designations and Listings, Community Relations, Relations with Other Groups, State Sponsors and External Influences

    Designated/Listed
  • Designated/Listed
  • Community Relations
  • Relationships with Other Groups
  • State Sponsors and External Influences

Designated/Listed

  • U.S. State Department: August 3, 2016 to present[i]
  •  U.N. Security Council: The UN designated JA as a terrorist group in accordance to resolution 1822. (July 6, 2017)[ii]


[i] "State Department Terrorist Designations of Jamaat-ul-Ahrar and Mohamed Abrini.” U.S. Department of State, 3 Aug. 2016, https://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/266488.htm.

[ii] “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing- Jaamat-ul-Ahrar.” United Nations Security Council Subsidiary Organs, 6 Jul. 2017, https://www.un.org/sc/suborg/en/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summari...

 

Community Relations

JA publishes a monthly magazine in Urdu, called Ihyae Kilafat. The magazine covers a range of topics, including political matters, military reports, and religious messages. JA has also sought to bolster public support by publishing pro-JA articles in the Pakistani national media.[i]



[i] "Monitoring militant activity online - August/September 2016." Jane’s by IHS Markit, Aug./Sept. 2016, http://janes.ihs.com/IntelligenceReview/Display/1783170.

 

Relationships with Other Groups

In August 2014, JA separated from the TTP due to ideological disagreements between its founding leader, Omar Khalid Khorasani, and the then leader of the TTP, Maulana Fazlullah.  Specifically, Khorasani did not agree with TTP’s decision to pursue peace talks with the Pakistani government, and criticized the TTP for straying from its original goal of establishing a global Islamic caliphate.[i]

When JA announced its separation from the TTP in 2014, many observers suspected that it would soon formally announce its allegiance to the Islamic State. While there were some reports that JA pledged support to the Islamic State, they were not formally substantiated.[ii] Regardless of their official ties, JA and the Islamic State have demonstrated their ability to cooperate by claiming joint responsibility for several attacks in Pakistan in 2016 and 2017.[iii]

JA has allegedly sought to balance and leverage support from both the Islamic State and Al Qaeda, despite the ongoing feud between the latter two groups.[iv]. JA has allegedly received funding and material support from Al Qaeda, due to Khorasani’s strong links to the organization.[v] JA has reportedly used this support to launch deadly attacks on Pakistani soil.[vi]

In March 2015, [MOU1] following a joint consultative meeting with Lashkar-e-Islam, JA announced that it would realign with the TTP, while working to reform the militant organization.[vii] A key factor that contributed to the JA’s realignment with the TTP was the desire to present a unified front against the Pakistani military’s large counter-terror offensive, Operation Zarb-e-Azb.[viii] However, despite the nominal reunification of the groups, JA continued to function with a large degree of autonomy, directing its own attacks and issuing independent statements and publications.[ix]



[i] Roggio, Bill. US State Department lists Jamaat-ul-Ahrar as terrorist group.” FDD’s Long War Journal. 3 Aug. 2016, http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2016/08/us-state-department-lists-jamaat-ul-ahrar-as-terrorist-group.php; Sherazi, Zahir Shah. "TTP Chief Mullah Fazlullah ousts Commander Umar Khorasani.” Dawn, 7 Sept. 2014, https://www.dawn.com/news/1130446; Rana, Muhammad Amir. "Changing the militant landscape in Pakistan.” Geo TV, https://www.geo.tv/latest/131808-jamaat-ul-ahrar-a-new-militant-threat-in-pakistan.

[ii] Rassler, Don. "Situating the Emergence of the Islamic State of Khorasan.” Combatting Terrorism Center, 19 Mar. 2015, https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/situating-the-emergence-of-the-islamic-state-of-khorasan.

[iii] Yousafzai, Gul. “Gunmen kill four police in Pakistani city of Quetta.” Reuters, 13 July, 2017, http://ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCAKBN19Y143-OCATP.

[iv] Rassler, Don. "Situating the Emergence of the Islamic State of Khorasan.” Combatting Terrorism Center, 19 Mar. 2015, https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/situating-the-emergence-of-the-islamic-state-of-khorasan

[v] Zahid, Farhan. "Jamaat ul-Ahrar: The New Face of Pakistan’s Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan.” Aberfoyle International Security, 29 Oct. 2014, http://www.aberfoylesecurity.com/?p=955.

[vi] Zahid, Farhan. "Jamaat ul-Ahrar: The New Face of Pakistan’s Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan.” Aberfoyle International Security, 29 Oct. 2014, http://www.aberfoylesecurity.com/?p=955.

[vii] Roggio, Bill. "Pakistani jihadist groups, Lashkar-i-Islam merge into the Movement of the Taliban in Pakistan.” Long War Journal, 12 Mar. 2015, www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2015/03/pakistani-jihadist-groups-lashkar-i-islam-merge-into-the-movement-of-the-taliban-in-pakistan.php.

[viii] “Pakistan's Jamaat-ul-Ahrar: A Violent Domestic Threat.” Jamestown Foundation: Terrorism Monitor, vol. 14, no. 18, 16 Sept. 2016, http://www.refworld.org/docid/57dffc514.html.

[ix] Roggio, Bill, and Caleb Weiss. "Pakistani Taliban Faction Showcases Training Camp, Suicide Attacks.” FDD’s Long War Journal, 2 Feb. 2017, http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2017/02/pakistani-taliban-faction-showcases-training-camp-suicide-attacks.php.


 

 

State Sponsors and External Influences

In April 2017, JA spokesman Ehsanullah Ehsan claimed that the foreign intelligence agency of India, the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), and Afghanistan's National Directorate of Security (NDS) were covertly backing JA. These agencies allegedly supported JA’s activities by providing funding and facilitating terror operations against the Pakistani government. Both the Afghan and Indian governments strongly denied Ehsan’s allegations, asserting that there was no credibility to the claims.[i] An Afghan security official dismissed Ehsan’s claims as an attempt by the Pakistani government to further the narrative that it is a victim of terrorism, while, in actuality, it is a sponsor of terrorism in Afghanistan and India.[ii]



[i] “India denies Taliban spokesman’s claims of RAW funding Pakistan attacks.” India TV, 27 Apr. 2017, http://www.indiatvnews.com/news/india-india-denies-taliban-spokesman-s-claims-of-raw-funding-pakistan-attacks-378980; “No credibility in ex-Taliban spokesperson’s claims of India, Afghanistan funding militants: Centre.” Scroll.in, 27 Apr. 2017, https://scroll.in/latest/835789/no-credibility-in-ex-taliban-spokespersons-claims-of-india-afghanistan-funding-militants-centre; Hassan, Syed Raza. “India, Afghanistan gave help to Pakistani Taliban, says group’s ex-spokesman.” Reuters, 26 Apr. 2017, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-pakistan-militants-idUSKBN17S1VN.

[ii] Hassan, Syed Raza. “India, Afghanistan gave help to Pakistani Taliban, says group’s ex-spokesman.” Reuters, 26 Apr. 2017, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-pakistan-militants-idUSKBN17S1VN.

 

 

Maps

The project develops a series of interactive diagrams that "map" relationships among groups and show how those relationships change over time. The user can change map settings to display different features (e.g., leadership changes), adjust the time scale, and trace individual groups.

Evolving Militant Interactions

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