Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)

Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) is a Sunni extremist group based in Pakistan that seeks to annex Indian Administered Kashmir (IAK) to Pakistan and govern Pakistan according to an extreme interpretation of Shariah law.

AT A GLANCE

Overview

Brief Summary of the Organization's History.

Organization

How does a group organize? Who leads it? How does it finance operations?

Strategy

How does a group fight? What are its aims and ideologies? What are some of its major attacks?

Major Attacks

What are the group's most famous attacks? What are some key attacks in the group's evolution?

Interactions

What is the group's relationship with the community? How does it interact with other groups?

Maps

What is the group's relationship with other militants over time?

Key Statistics:

2000 First Recorded Activity:
2000 First Attack:
2018 Last Recorded Activity:

Contact

Send a message to the Mapping Militants team.

How to Cite:

Mapping Militant Organizations. "Jaish-e-Mohammed." Stanford University. Last modified July 2018. https://cisac.fsi.stanford.edu/mappingmilitants/profiles/jaish-e-mohammed

Overview

Brief History

    Overview
  • Overview
  • Narrative

Overview

FormedFebruary 4, 2000
DisbandedGroup is active.
First Attack

April 19, 2000: A suicide car bomb exploded outside of the Indian Army’s 15 Corp headquarters in Badami Bagh, India. It was later discovered that the suicide bomber was a member of JeM. It was the first suicide militant attack in India. (1 killed, 7 wounded)

Last AttackJuly 6, 2018: JeM militants threw a grenade at a Central Reserve Police Force party in Pantha Chowk in Srinagar. (0 killed, 0 wounded).
UpdatedJuly 2018

 

Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) is a Sunni extremist group based in Pakistan that seeks to annex Indian Administered Kashmir (IAK) to Pakistan and govern Pakistan according to an extreme interpretation of Shariah law. Radical Islamist scholar Masood Azhar founded the group in 1994. Since its formation, the group claimed responsibility for multiple militant attacks in IAK, India, and Pakistan, and in 2008 began to refocus its efforts to combat U.S. and Coalition forces in Afghanistan. The group has also maintained close relations with the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. It regularly targets government and security forces using arms attacks and suicide bombings.

Narrative

Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) is an extremist Islamist group based in Pakistan that aims to undermine Indian control of the Indian Administered Kashmir (IAK) and unite the province with Pakistan under their own interpretation of Shariah Law.[i]

The group was founded by radical Islamist scholar Masood Azhar. Azhar was a citizen of Pakistan and a leader of the militant group Harakat al-Mujahedeen (HuM) starting in 1994. That same year, Azhar was arrested by Indian security forces while on a mission to wage jihad against the Indian government while a member of HuM. He was accused of working with Al-Qaeda (AQ) and of fighting against U.S. troops in Somalia under Osama Bin Laden’s instructions.[ii] After HuM attempted to free him several times, the group finally succeeded in 1999 by hijacking an Indian Airlines plane carrying 155 passengers. They secured his release from the Indian government in exchange for the hostages.[iii] Shortly after his release, Azhar travelled to Afghanistan where he reportedly met with Osama bin Laden.[iv] Instead of staying on as a leader of HuM, Azhar chose to splinter from the group and form a new militant organization. JeM was established on February 4, 2000 at a congregation at Masjid Falal in Karachi.[v]

 Bin Laden, along with Pakistan’s Inter-service Intelligence (ISI), the Afghan Taliban, and several Islamist fundamentalist groups reportedly supported Azhar in forming JeM. The venture was also allegedly supported by the chiefs of three major religious schools: Mufti Nizamuddin Shamzai of the Majlis-e-Tawan-e-Islami, Maulana Mufti Rashid Ahmed of the Dar-ul Ifta-e-wal-Irshad, and Maulana Sher Ali of the Sheikh-ul-Hadith Dar-ul Haqqania.[vi] About three quarters of HuM’s membership reportedly joined Azhar in JeM, which reportedly led to a violent rivalry between JeM and HuM.[vii]

JeM quickly gained notoriety for its attacks in Indian Administered Kashmir (IAK), and later in India and Pakistan. It carried out the first suicide attack in the history of the Kashmir conflict on April 19, 2000, although it may have been responsible for other attacks prior to this date.[viii] In October 2001, the group bombed the legislative assembly building in IAK, killing more than 30 people.[ix] In December 2001, armed militants attacked the parliament of India, setting off a tense political standoff between Pakistan and its rival India, which regularly accused Pakistan’s ISI of sponsoring terrorist attacks against India. Indian authorities soon determined that JeM and another organization, Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT) were responsible for the attack. Both groups denied involvement.[x]

Later in December of 2001, following the Parliament attack, the U.S. State Department added JeM to its foreign terrorist organization (FTO) list.[xi] Pakistani authorities arrested Masood Azhar on December 29, 2001 for his supposed involvement in the attack, but he was released a year later after the Lahore High Court ruled his arrest unlawful.[xii] Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf outlawed JeM, along with another Pakistan-based Islamist group, in 2002. Although the ban did not end allegations that Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) supported jihadi militant groups like JeM, it signaled an official withdrawal of any alleged state support.[xiii] In that same year, JeM members gained international media attention by kidnapping and later beheading American noncombatant journalist Daniel Pearl.[xiv] The following year, the group attempted to assassinate Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf twice.[xv]

As a response to the scrutiny that came with its high-profile attacks and to protect itself from the repercussions of being on the U.S. FTO list, Azhar renamed the group Tehrik-ul-Furqan and reportedly distributed the organization’s financial resources to low-profile members for safekeeping.[xvi] Despite the security measures, the group is reported to have suffered major setbacks in the mid 2000s as a result of government arrests targeting JeM senior leaders.[xvii] In 2003, shortly after the name change, Azhar expelled twelve other leaders and the group splintered into two offshoots: Khuddam ul-Islam (KUI) remained headed by Azhar, and Jamaat ul-Furqan (JUF), led by Maulana Abdul Jabbar, reportedly rejected Azhar’s leadership.[xviii] Most sources continued to report on the factions as a single organization as attacks continued throughout the 2000s.

In June 2008, JeM representatives allegedly attended a meeting of extremist organizations in Pakistan, where the attendees planned to refocus their collective efforts on expelling foreign actors from Afghanistan rather than on IAK and Pakistan.[xix] Subsequently, JeM increased its targeting of the U.S. and U.S. coalition forces in Afghanistan, while reducing, but not stopping, its efforts against India, IAK, and the Pakistani government.[xx] In late 2008, Azhar was briefly detained after a suicide assault in Mumbai, India, but was quietly freed from custody shortly afterward.[xxi]

Attacks in IAK throughout 2013 and 2014 appear to have been carried out by individuals affiliated with JeM, but those attacks have not necessarily been planned by the organization. However, Azhar publicly continued to make statements calling for jihad to liberate IAK as well as attacks against Israeli and U.S. interests.[xxii].

Following a visit from the Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, in 2016, JeM launched attacks on the Pathankot air base in India and on the Indian consulate in Mazar-i-Sharif in Afghanistan.[xxiii] In 2016, JeM participated in a large rally in Kashmir against the Indian government after Indian forces killed a young militant separatist Burhan Wani.[xxiv] In September of 2016, JeM attacked the Indian brigade headquarters, resulting in the death of 19 Indian soldiers. The attack was described as one of the deadliest attacks in Kashmir. The attack prompted demands by the Indian government that Pakistan stop supporting militant groups in the region, despite Pakistan’s continued claim that it does not support the groups.[xxv] In 2017 and 2018, the group has remained active and has continued conducting smaller scale attacks in the region.



[i] “Jaish-e-Mohammad” FAS. 3 May 2004. Web. 10 Feb 2015. < http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/jem.htm>

[ii] Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)." Terrorist Organization Profiles. National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, n.d. Web. 26 May 2015. http://www.start.umd.edu/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=58

[iii] "Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)." Extremist Groups: Information for Students. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 394-400. Global Issues In Context. Web. 26 May 2015;  “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations” U.S.  State Department. 20 May 2013. Web. 29 Jan 2015 < http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm> “Jaish-e-Mohammad” FAS. 3 May 2004. Web. 10 Feb 2015. < http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/jem.htm>

[iv] "Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)." Extremist Groups: Information for Students. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 394-400. Global Issues In Context. Web. 26 May 2015.

[v] Honawar, Rohit. “Jaish-e-Mohammed.” Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies. IPCS Special Report. No. 4. November, 2015. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/100232/IPCS-Special-Report-04.pdf

[vi] "Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)." Terrorist Organization Profiles. National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, n.d. Web. 26 May 2015. <http://www.start.umd.edu/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=58>.

[vii] "Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)." Terrorist Organization Profiles. National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, n.d. Web. 26 May 2015. http://www.start.umd.edu/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=58;  "Amendments To, and Maintenance Of, the Terrorist Designations of Harakat Ul-Mujahidin." U.S. Department of State. N.p., 07 Aug. 2014. Web. 25 June 2015. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2014/230373.htm; B, Raman, "Jaish-e-Muhammad rebaptized," South Asia Analysis Group, paper no. 377 available at: http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers4/paper337.html

[viii] "Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)." Kashmir Herald on the Web, Jan. 2002. Web. 26 May 2015. <http://www.kashmirherald.com/profiles/jaishemohammad.html>.

[ix] "JAISH-E-MOHAMMED (JeM)." Counterterrorism Guide. National Counterterrorism Center, Sept. 2013. Web. 28 May 2015. <http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/jem.html>.

[x] Starr, Barbara. "Diplomatic Pressure on India, Pakistan." CNN. Cable News Network, 27 Dec. 2001. Web. 22 May 2015. http://edition.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/south/12/26/pakistan.india/; Afridi, Jamal. "Kashmir Militant Extremists." Council on Foreign Relations. N.p., 09 July 2009. Web. 26 May 2015. <http://www.cfr.org/kashmir/kashmir-militant-extremists/p9135#p2>; “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations” U.S.  State Department. 20 May 2013. Web. 29 Jan 2015 < http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm>

[xi] "Foreign Terrorist Organizations." U.S. Department of State. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 May 2015. <http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/123085.htm>.

[xii] "Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)." Extremist Groups: Information for Students. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 394-400. Global Issues In Context. Web. 26 May 2015. 

[xiii] "Pakistani Militants Return to Roots with Lahore Attack." BBC News. N.p., 2 July 2010. Web. 31 May 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/10491799;  “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations” U.S.  State Department. 20 May 2013. Web. 29 Jan 2015 < http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm>

[xiv] “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations” U.S.  State Department. 20 May 2013. Web. 29 Jan 2015 < http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm>; WSJ Staff. "Reporter Daniel Pearl Is Dead, Killed by His Captors in Pakistan." Wall Street Journal. N.p., 24 Feb. 2002. Web. 29 May 2015. <http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1014311357552611480>.

[xv] "Statement of Reasons– JAISH-E-MOHAMMAD (JeM)." Completed Inquiries. Parliament of Australia, n.d. Web. 28 May 2015. <http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Completed_....

[xvi] "Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)." Extremist Groups: Information for Students. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 394-400. Global Issues In Context. Web. 26 May 2015.

[xvii] “IPCS Special Report: Jaish-e-mohammed” IPCS November 2005 Web 21 Feb 2015 http://www.ipcs.org/pdf_file/issue/358374414IPCS-Special-Report-04.pdf

[xviii] "Statement of Reasons– JAISH-E-MOHAMMAD (JeM)." Completed Inquiries. Parliament of Australia, n.d. Web. 28 May 2015. <http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Completed_....

[xix] "Appendix G – Statement of Reasons – Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)." Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security. Parliament of Australia, n.d. Web. 01 June 2015. <http://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_business/committees/house_of_represe....

[xx] "JAISH-E-MOHAMMED (JeM)." Counterterrorism Guide. National Counterterrorism Center, Sept. 2013. Web. 28 May 2015. <http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/jem.html>.

[xxi] “ US transfers Taliban commander to Pakistani custody” Long War Journal. Web 21 Feb 2015 < http://www.longwarjournal.org/threat-matrix/archives/2014/12/us_transfers_taliban_commander.php>

[xxii] "Jaish-e-Mohammed." Australian National Security. Australian Government, 3 Mar. 2015. Web. 28 May 2015. <http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nationalsecurity.gov.au%2FListedterroristorganisations%2FPages%2FJai....

[xxiii] Riedel, Bruce. “Blame Pakistani Spy Service for Attack on Indian Air Force Base.” The Daily Beast. 5 Jan. 2016. Web https://www.thedailybeast.com/blame-pakistani-spy-service-for-attack-on-...

[xxiv] Ali, Umer. “Pakistan: The Rebirth of Jihad.” The Diplomat. 18 Aug. 2017. Web. https://thediplomat.com/2016/08/pakistan-the-rebirth-of-jihad/

[xxv] Kumar, Hari; Anand, Geetz. “17 Indian Soldiers Killed by Militants in Kashmir.” The New York Times. 18 Sept. 2016. Web.

 

Organizational Structure

Leadership, Name Changes, Size Estimates, Resources, Geographic Locations

    Leadership
  • Leadership
  • Masood Azhar (2000 - Present)
  • Maulana Abdul Jabbar (2000 - Present)

Leadership

This section describes various leaders, their deputies, and other important officials in the militant organization.

Masood Azhar (2000 - Present)

Azhar is JeM’s founder and commander. A former member of Harakat-ul-Mujahideen, Azhar gained prominence throughout the nineties, including during his time in an Indian prison for militant activities in Jammu and Kashmir. HuM members took a passenger plane hostage to secure his release from prison, and now Azhar also leads the JeM faction known as Khuddam ul-Islam. He is listed by the U.S. as a specially designated terrorist.[i] The UN has made repeated efforts to designate Azhar as a global terrorist, yet these efforts have remained unsuccessful.[ii]



[i] Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam" Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 64; Roggio, Bill. “Indian forces kill Jaish-e-Mohammed commander in Kashmir.” FDD’s Long War Journal. 13 Oct. 2017. Web.

[ii] “India slams China for blocking move to list Azhar as global terrorist.” The Economic Times. 14 Jul. 2018. Web.

 

Maulana Abdul Jabbar (2000 - Present)

Jabbar is the leader of the JeM faction known as Jamaat ul-Furqan.[i]



[i] "Statement of Reasons– JAISH-E-MOHAMMAD (JeM)." Completed Inquiries. Parliament of Australia, n.d. Web. 28 May 2015.

 

    Name Changes
  • Name Changes
  • Size Estimates
  • Resources
  • Geographic Locations

Name Changes

In 2001, following reports that the U.S. State Department was considering declaring JeM a foreign terrorist organization, the group renamed itself Tehrik-ul-Furqan and transferred money from its bank accounts to low-profile supporters to hide its assets.[i]

In 2003, the group splintered into two fractions; Jamaat ul-Furqan (JUF) and Khuddam ul-Islam (KUI). Despite the divisions, the group is still reported, and acknowledged by authorities, as a single entity, JeM.[ii]



[i] "Explanatory Memorandum to the Terrorism Act 2000." Home Office, Government of the United Kingdom. 2005. Available at: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2005/draft/em/uksidem_0110734246_en.pdf ; Raman, B. "Jaish-e-Mohammad Rebaptised?" South Asia Analysis Group. 2001. Available at: http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers4/paper337.html}}

[ii] "Statement of Reasons– JAISH-E-MOHAMMAD (JeM)." Completed Inquiries. Parliament of Australia, n.d. Web. 28 May 2015. <http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Completed_....

 

Size Estimates

  • 2009: 100s-1000s. (Council on Foreign Relations)[i]
  • 2013: At least several hundred armed supporters – including a large cadre of former Harakat ul-Mujahideen members. (U.S. State Department)[ii]


[i] “ Kashmir Militant Extremists” CFR 9 Jun 2009. Web. Feb 2015 < http://www.cfr.org/kashmir/kashmir-militant-extremists/p9135>

[ii] “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations” U.S.  State Department. 20 May 2013. Web. 29 Jan 2015 < http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm>

 

Resources

The group receives funds through charitable foundations such as Al Rashid Trust, a trust fund recognized by the U.S. as a financial facilitator of militants for raising funds for Al Qaeda and the Taliban in 2001.[i] JeM also collected funds through personal donations and requests in magazines and pamphlets.[ii] The group has allegedly received funding and resources from other Pakistani militant groups, including Harakat ul-Jihad (HuJ) and Harakat ul-Mujahideen (HuM), although other reports argue that JeM is a rival of HuM.[iii]

Anticipating the ban on its funding activities and asset freeze in 2002, JeM withdrew most of its bank assets, dispersed some of it among low-ranking members for safekeeping, and invested in legal businesses. The group started raising money through legal activities that include commodity trading, real estate, and production of consumer goods.[iv]



[i] “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations” U.S.  State Department. 20 May 2013. Web. 29 Jan 2015 < http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm>; Appendix C – Statement of Reasons – Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)." Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security. Parliament of Australia, n.d. Web. 01 June 2015. <http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Completed_....

[ii] “Jaish-e-Mohammad” FAS. 3 May 2004. Web. 10 Feb 2015. < http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/jem.htm>

[iii] “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations” U.S.  State Department. 20 May 2013. Web. 29 Jan 2015 < http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm>;  B, Raman, "Jaish-e-Muhammad rebaptized," South Asia Analysis Group, paper no. 377 available at: http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers4/paper337.html

[iv] “Jaish-e-Mohammad” FAS. 3 May 2004. Web. 10 Feb 2015. < http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/jem.htm> Appendix C – Statement of Reasons – Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)." Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security. Parliament of Australia, n.d. Web. 01 June 2015. <http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Completed_....

 

Geographic Locations

Disclaimer: This is a partial list of where the militant organization has bases and where it operates. This does not include information on where the group conducts major attacks or has external influences.

Indian Administered Kashmir was the initial focus of most JeM operations, although it also has consistently carried out attacks in India and Pakistan since the early 2000s. In 2008, it began to target Coalition forces in Afghanistan.[i] JeM now operates primarily in IAK, India, Afghanistan, and southern Pakistan.[ii]



[i] "JAISH-E-MOHAMMED (JeM)." Counterterrorism Guide. National Counterterrorism Center, Sept. 2013. Web. 28 May 2015. <http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/jem.html>.

[ii] “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations” U.S.  State Department. 20 May 2013. Web. 29 Jan 2015 < http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm>

 

Strategy

Ideology, Aims, Political Activities, Targets, and Tactics

    Ideology and Goals
  • Ideology and Goals
  • Political Activities
  • Targets and Tactics

Ideology and Goals

The group’s main goals are to unite Kashmir with Pakistan, ensure that Pakistan is ruled by Shariah law, and drive Western forces from Afghanistan. Its primary objective, however, remains to ‘liberate’ Kashmir from Indian control and integrate it into Pakistan. The group aims to achieve this primary goal by engaging with Indian forces, hoping for the eventual withdrawal of their forces from the region.[i]

It has publicly declared war on the United States and intends to drive Hindus and other non-Muslims from the subcontinent.[ii] The group has also called for the destruction of India, Israel and the United States by waging jihad against the governments for violating the rights of Muslim people.[iii]

JeM’s ideology closely follows that of AQ and the Taliban, and Azhar has publicly likened JeM’s goals to that of the organization Sipah-e-Sahaba.[iv]



[i] Honawar, Rohit. “Jaish-e-Mohammed.” Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies. IPCS Special Report. No. 4. November, 2015. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/100232/IPCS-Special-Report-04.pdf

[ii] "JAISH-E-MOHAMMED (JeM)." Counterterrorism Guide. National Counterterrorism Center, Sept. 2013. Web. 28 May 2015. http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/jem.html; "Appendix G – Statement of Reasons – Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)." Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security. Parliament of Australia, n.d. Web. 01 June 2015. <http://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_business/committees/house_of_represe....

[iii] Honawar, Rohit. “Jaish-e-Mohammed.” Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies. IPCS Special Report. No. 4. November, 2015. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/100232/IPCS-Special-Report-04.pdf

[iv] "Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)." Extremist Groups: Information for Students. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 394-400. Global Issues In Context. Web. 26 May 2015.

 

Political Activities

JeM allegedly has ties to Jamiat-I Ulema-I Islam Fazlur Rehman, an Islamist political party in Pakistan and Kashmir, but does not actively engage in politics.[i]



[i] "Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)." Terrorist Organization Profiles. National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, n.d. Web. 26 May 2015. <http://www.start.umd.edu/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=58>.

 

Targets and Tactics

JeM primarily attacks Indian police forces and other government targets, including army bases, camps, and public places in Kashmir and India. The group has also targeted Christians and Shiites.[i] In addition to attacks on military bases and government buildings, the group also conducts attacks against individuals with political influence.[ii]

In June 2008, JeM representatives allegedly attended a meeting of extremist organizations in Pakistan, where the attendees planned to refocus their collective efforts on expelling foreign actors from Afghanistan rather than on IAK and Pakistan.[iii] Subsequently, JeM increased its targeting of the U.S. and U.S. coalition forces in Afghanistan, while reducing, but not stopping, its efforts against India, IAK, and the Pakistani government.[iv]

In 2016, the group conducted a series of high profile large attacks, with the intent of high publicity and high impact. Since then, the group has conducted smaller low-profile attacks against individuals with lower death tolls.



[i]  Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam" Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 68.

[iii] "Appendix G – Statement of Reasons – Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)." Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security. Parliament of Australia, n.d. Web. 01 June 2015. <http://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_business/committees/house_of_represe....

[iv] "JAISH-E-MOHAMMED (JeM)." Counterterrorism Guide. National Counterterrorism Center, Sept. 2013. Web. 28 May 2015. <http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/jem.html>.

 

Major Attacks

First Attacks, Largest Attacks, Notable Attacks

Major Attacks

Disclaimer: These are some selected major attacks in the militant organization's history. It is not a comprehensive listing, but captures some of the most famous attacks or turning points during the campaign.

JeM often carries out small arms attacks against policemen that generally kill one or two, and security forces regularly carry out raids to kill and arrest JeM members.[i] JeM’s activity may have decreased after 2013, although complications in attribution and reporting make it difficult to be certain of the group’s current operational status.

April 19, 2000: A suicide car bomb exploded outside of the Indian Army’s 15 Corp headquarters in Badami Bagh, India. It was later discovered that the suicide bomber was a member of JeM. It was the first suicide militant attack in India. (1 killed, 7 injured)[ii]

December 11, 2000: Militants claiming to belong to JeM planted a mine in the main Srinagar-Baramulla highway in New Delhi, India. The militants activated the mine when a Border Security Force vehicle passed the area. (1 killed, 8 injured)[iii]

December 25, 2000: A car bomb exploded outside the Indian Army headquarters in IAK. Both Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen and JeM claimed responsibility for the attack. (8 killed, 23 injured)[iv]

October 01, 2001: JeM militants were responsible for a car bomb targeting the State Assembly building in Srinagar, India. The militants entered the building and engaged in a shootout with Indian Security Forces. (31 killed, 6 injured)[v]

December 13, 2001: JeM gunmen stormed the Parliament building in Mumbai. No members of Parliament were killed, and all of the gunmen died in the attack. (14 killed, 22+ killed).[vi]

January 23, 2002: Wall Street Journal journalist Daniel Pearl was abducted by JeM members in Karachi, Pakistan, making international news. He was beheaded several weeks after his abduction. (1 killed, 0 wounded)[vii]

February 14, 2002: JeM was suspected of killing National Conference activist Abdul Hafeez Mirza. JeM had previously warned people against participating in the upcoming electoral process in Jammu and Kashmir. (1 killed, 0 wounded)[viii]

August 4, 2002: JeM gunmen attacked a convent school near Islamabad, and then a Christian hospital in the region a few days later. (10 killed, 23+ wounded).[ix]

December 25 2003: JeM was responsible for two suicide bombing attempts to assassinate Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. (1 killed, 0 wounded)[x]

May 30, 2006: A JeM grenade attack on a Human Rights Commission escort vehicle near the Iqbal Park area of Srinagar killed a police constable. (1 killed, 6 wounded).[xi]

September 26, 2013: JeM has remained active since 2013, but it has been difficult to attribute and verify attacks due to high levels of militant activity in the region. The most recent reliable information came from September 2013, when an army base in IAK was attacked in a truck bombing and subsequent raid by gunmen. The al-Shuda Brigade claimed responsibility, but authorities believed that JeM and Lashkar-e-Taiba colluded in the attack. (7 killed, 3 wounded)[xii]

January 2, 2016: Six heavily armed militant attacked the Pathankot Air Force Station in Punjab, India using AK-47 weapons and grenades. The attack resulted in a gunfight lasting well over 12 hours. Indian intelligence suggested that the attacks were conducted by JeM. (7 killed, 20 wounded)[xiii]

September 18, 2016: Four suspected JeM militants attacked an Indian Army brigade headquarters in Uri, India. JeM was blamed by the Indian government for the attack, although no conclusive proof was found. The attack was deemed the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades (21 killed, 19 injured).[xiv]

July 6, 2018: JeM militants threw a grenade at a Central Reserve Police Force party in Pantha Chowk in Srinagar. (0 killed, 0 wounded)[xv]



[i]  "Incidents and Statements Involving Jaish-e-Mohammed : 1999-2012." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 June 2015. <http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_out....

[ii] “Global Terrorism Database” UMD. Web. 10 Feb 2015 <http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?expanded=no&casualties_type=&casualties_max=&success=yes&perpetrator=20233&ob=GTDID&od=desc&page=1&count=100#results-table>;  "Incidents and Statements Involving Jaish-e-Mohammed : 1999-2012." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 June 2015. <http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_out....

[vi] South Asia Terrorism Portal – Jaish-e-Muhammad accessed at: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/jaish_e_mohammad_mujahideen_e_tanzeem.htm accessed on: July 30, 2010.  "2001: Suicide Attack on Indian Parliament." BBC News. N.p., 13 Dec. 2001. Web. 01 June 2015. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/13/newsid_3695....

[ix]  Ahmed Rashid, Descent into Chaos, Penguin Books, 2008, p. 159 and United States Department of State Publication Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, "Country Reports on Terrorism 2009," August 2010, p. 257. BBC, "Gunmen attack Pakistan school,"

[xi] Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security, "Review of the re-listing of Ansar al-Sunna, Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM), Lashkar-e Jhangvi (LeJ), Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Islamic Army of Aden (IAA), Asbat al Ansar (AAA)

[xii]  "Incident Summary:." Incident Summary for GTDID: 201309260002. Global Terrorism Database at START UMD, n.d. Web. 24 May 2015. <http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=201309260....

[xiii] Najar, Nilda.”Gunmen Killed in Pathankot, India, Air Base Attack.” The New York Times. 2 Jan. 2016. Web.

[xiv] “Militants attack Indian army base in Kashmir ‘killing 17’ BBC News. 18 Sept 2016. Web; TNN & Agencies. “Uri terror attack: 17 soldiers killed, 19 injured in strike on Army camp.” The Times of India. 30 Sept 2016. Web.

[xv] “J&K: Terrorists Lob Grenade at CRPF in Srinagr’s Pantha Chowk.” India.com News Desk. 6 Jul. 2018. Web. http://www.india.com/news/india/jammu-and-kashmir-terrorists-lob-grenade...

 

Interactions

Foreign Designations and Listings, Community Relations, Relations with Other Groups, State Sponsors and External Influences

    Designated/Listed
  • Designated/Listed
  • Community Relations
  • Relations with Other Groups
  • State Sponsors and External Influences

Designated/Listed

  • December 26, 2001: Designated as a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the U.S. State Department.[i]
  • October 25, 2001: JeM was designated by the Indian government under the provisions of the Prevention of Terrorism Act.[ii]
  • January 2002: Pakistan banned JeM and froze its assets.[iii]
  • November 2003: Pakistan banned JeM splinters JUF and KUI.[iv]


[i] “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations” U.S.  State Department. 20 May 2013. Web. 29 Jan 2015 < http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm>

[ii] “Banned Organizations” Indian Ministry of Home Affairs. Web 21 Feb 2015 http://mha.nic.in/BO

[iv] “Jaish-e-Mohammad” FAS. 3 May 2004. Web. 10 Feb 2015. < http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/jem.htm>

 

Community Relations

JeM primarily recruits members from small towns and madrasas in the rural areas of Pakistan. Since 2000, JeM members have organized a series of recruitment rallies throughout Pakistan, in an attempt to motivate Islamic youth to wage jihad.[i] JeM also runs its own madrasas.[ii] The group also reportedly recruits internationally among Kashmiri and Punjabi emigrants in Britain and has a number of veteran Afghan members.[iii]

Some experts believe that because of JeM’s operations and locations, as well as their Taliban association, the group could have strong connections to the Pashtun tribes.[iv]



[ii] Siddiqa, Ayesha. "Pakistan’s 9/11?" The New York Times. N.p., 20 Dec. 2014. Web. 01 June 2015. <http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/20/opinion/pakistans-9-11.html>.

[iii]   Hussain, Zahid,  2007  Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam / Zahid Hussain  Columbia University Press, New York; p. 64. Ministry of External Affairs, India. "L.K. Advani's Speech after Terrorist Attack on Indian Parliament." http://meaindia.nic.in/speech/2001/12/18spc01.htm (accessed October 20, 2005). 

[iv] Katja Riikonen, "Punjabi Taliban and the Sectarian Groups in Pakistan", Pakistan Security and Research Unit, Brief No 55, February 2010.

 

Relations with Other Groups

There is an interconnected and evolving militant landscape in Pakistan. It can be difficult to determine the relationships among many groups, and there are more reports about some groups than others. There are also scattered reports about alliances and rivalries with groups like Lashkar-e-Taiba, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, and Harkat-ul-Mujahideen.

Azhar allegedly met with Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden and secured his support to create JeM. According to some analysts, JeM members trained in Afghanistan prior to the crackdown on camps there after September 11, 2001. Although some analysts allege close ties between AQ and JeM, the extent and type of assistance that AQ provides is at present unknown.[i] JeM also reportedly maintains ties with the Taliban, although it is unclear how strong these ties are.[ii]

The Al-Rashid Trust (ART), a charity organization in Pakistan that is on the U.S. Department of Treasury’s terrorist organization list, is known to fund JeM and other jihadi groups. However, the organizational ties between ART and JeM likely extend beyond simple funding, and ART may be a front organization for JeM and other jihadi activities. For example, ART founded the newspaper Zarb-e-Momin in the 1990s, and now Zarb-e-Momin is published as JeM’s official newspaper.[iii]

JeM has strong ties with the Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) due to the relationship between Azhar and the SSP President Maulana Azam Tariq.[iv] Tariq joined a "Crush India" rally organized by JeM on February 5, 2000 and announced, "One hundred thousand Sipah-e- Sahaba workers will join Jaish-e-Muhammad to fight the infidels."[v] In October 2000, SSP Chairman, Maulana Ziaul Qasmi, participated in another jihad conference organized by JeM and SSP where he took a vow of jihad on the hand of Azhar.[vi] Both organizations recruit from madrasas and the rural and urban lower middle class.[vii] Some reports allege joint operations between SSP and JeM.[viii]

JeM reportedly became a rival of Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HuM) after Azhar split from HuM to form JeM in 2000, taking many HuM members with him. Even with similar ideologies, frequent clashes allegedly occurred between the groups over matters such as financial allotments and HuM's assets. The groups reportedly attempted to resolve the conflict in 2000 when they submitted a hakam (arbitration) to their elders. JeM was supposed to return all buildings in Punjab in exchange for money. However, this agreement created further tensions, leading JeM to attack and kill a small number of HuM operatives during the period of the split.[ix]



[i] Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam," Columbia University Press, New York (2007), M.A. Zahab and Olivier Roy, "Islamist Networks: The Afghan-Pakistan Connection." Translated by John King. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004;  "Appendix D – Statement of Reasons– JAISH-E-MOHAMMAD (JeM)." Completed Inquiries. Parliament of Australia, n.d. Web. 31 May 2015. <http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Completed_....

[ii] "Appendix D – Statement of Reasons– JAISH-E-MOHAMMAD (JeM)." Completed Inquiries. Parliament of Australia, n.d. Web. 31 May 2015. <http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Completed_....

[iii] Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam," Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 66.

[iv] "Pakistani Militants Return to Roots with Lahore Attack." BBC News. N.p., 2 July 2010. Web. 31 May 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/10491799;  M.A. Zahab and Olivier Roy, "Islamist Networks: The Afghan-Pakistan Connection." Translated by John King. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. p. 30.

[v] M. A Rana, "A to Z of Jehadi Organizations in Pakistan," Mashal Publishing; Lahore, Pakistan. (2005); p. 146.

[vi] M. A Rana, "A to Z of Jehadi Organizations in Pakistan," Mashal Publishing; Lahore, Pakistan. (2005); p. 146.

[vii] Bartley, Caleb M. "A Review of: "Zahab, Marian Abou and Olivier Roy. Islamist Networks: The Afghan-Pakistan Connection." -- Translated by John King. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004." Comparative Strategy 24.4 (2005). 04 Jul. 2010; pp 30.

[viii]  "Appendix D – Statement of Reasons– JAISH-E-MOHAMMAD (JeM)." Completed Inquiries. Parliament of Australia, n.d. Web. 31 May 2015. <http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Completed_....

[ix] B, Raman, "Jaish-e-Muhammad rebaptized," South Asia Analysis Group, paper no. 377 available at: http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers4/paper337.html

 

 

State Sponsors and External Influences

Indian officials allege that Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), Osama bin Laden, and the Taliban supported the founding of JeM. Both Indian and Pakistani officials claimed that Azhar has met with high-ranking AQ leaders, including Osama bin Laden.[i]



[i] "Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)." Extremist Groups: Information for Students. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 394-400. Global Issues In Context. Web. 26 May 2015.

 

Maps

The project develops a series of interactive diagrams that "map" relationships among groups and show how those relationships change over time. The user can change map settings to display different features (e.g., leadership changes), adjust the time scale, and trace individual groups.

Evolving Militant Interactions

Download Full Profile as PDF

Last updated July 2018